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As defined in NAGPRA, "Native American" refers to human remains and cultural items relating to tribes, peoples, or cultures that resided within the area now encompassed by the United States prior to the historically documented arrival of European explorers, irrespective of when a particular group may have begun to reside in this area, and, irrespective of whether some or all of these groups were or were not culturally affiliated or biologically related to present-day Indian tribes.If this set of remains is found to fit within the category of "Native American," issues related to cultural affiliation will be highly relevant to how disposition of the remains should be accomplished.The Interagency Agreement Between the Department of the Army (DOA) and the Department of the Interior (DOI), signed in March, 1998, delegated responsibilities to the DOI for certain decisions related to the set of human skeletal remains recovered from land managed by the Corps of Engineers (COE) near Columbia Park, Kennewick, WA.The agreement calls for the DOI to investigate and resolve two basic issues.The bone sample used for this date was approximately half of the right metatarsal, one of the load-bearing bones of the foot (Sample DOI 1a). Hood also reported that "by our standards, the collagen extract looked free of intrusive elements.Analysis and processing of the sample at Beta indicated that the amount of organic carbon remaining in the sample was very low. Darden Hood, reported that "the original weight of the bone was 9.1 grams. It was vitreous in texture and golden in color as expected.It is reasonable to conclude that the human remains from Columbia Park in Kennewick, WA, are "Native American" as defined by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.
The equivalent calibrated radiocarbon age (using the two sigma, 95% probability) in years BP is cal BP 9510 to 9405 and cal BP 9345 to 9320. The percentage of carbon is then calculated as 33.7% carbon within the collagen (Hood 1999b and Attachment 2)." Mr.One of the samples (Sample DOI 1b) was dated as 8130 /- 40 BP (UCR-3806/CAMS-60684), slightly different from the BA date for Sample DOI 1a, but not inconsistent with it.These two samples, in fact, are from the same bone, the right first metatarsal.In all, information derived using the methods and techniques of archeology, geomorphology, physical anthropology, sedimentology, and other scientific disciplines support this determination.Our determination that the Kennewick skeletal remains are "Native American" is based upon the scientific information that we have available.